Best Programming Languages for Beginners Guide 2024

Written by paisa hunt

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Best Programming Languages for Novice Learners

Embark on an exciting journey into the realm of programming! Whether you’re aiming for a career in software development or seeking to boost your problem-solving skills, understanding programming languages is crucial in today’s digital age. These languages not only shape the present but also hold the key to the future of web development.

In this guide, we’ll delve into the top programming languages tailored for beginners in 2024. With a plethora of options available, we’ve meticulously selected languages that are beginner-friendly, widely used, and poised for significant growth in the years ahead.

As you step into the world of software development, choosing where to start can be daunting. With hundreds of programming languages out there, each with its own intricacies, it’s natural to feel overwhelmed. However, as you progress on your journey, you’ll discover which language aligns best with your interests and career aspirations.

This article serves as your roadmap, highlighting the best and most sought-after programming languages for various purposes and career paths, including web development, mobile app development, game development, and more.

In an era where the internet permeates every aspect of our lives and the IT industry continues to expand, coding languages have never been more vital. Professionals in the IT sector are proficient in multiple languages to navigate the rapidly evolving landscape of software development. Whether you aspire to work in programming or the broader IT field, mastering these languages opens doors to endless opportunities.

What is Programming Languages – Bridging the Gap Between Humans and Machines

Programming Languages for Beginners Guide, Programming languages serve as the bridge between humans and computers, enabling us to communicate instructions effectively to machines. Unlike humans, computers speak in binary, a language composed of 0s and 1s, where 0 represents off and 1 represents on.

However, writing code directly in binary is cumbersome and error-prone. To simplify the process, humans developed programming languages that are readable, easier to learn, and more intuitive.

These languages fall into two main categories: low-level and high-level.

Low-level languages, such as binary code and assembly language, offer minimal abstraction from the machine’s instruction set. They closely resemble the instructions understood by the computer’s processor.

On the other hand, high-level languages are designed to be more human-friendly. They bear similarities to natural languages like English, making them easier to comprehend and write. High-level languages provide a more concise and less verbose way to create instructions that computers can execute.

What is the Distinctions Between Programming, Scripting, and Markup Languages

In the realm of computer languages, there are three distinct categories, each serving unique purposes:

  1. Programming Languages:
    • Purpose: Used for crafting logical sets of instructions to solve computational problems.
    • Nature: Written in a human-readable format but converted into machine code (binary) for execution.
    • Conversion: Accomplished via a compiler, which translates high-level language instructions into machine-understandable code all at once.
    • Execution: Once converted, the instructions are executed by the computer’s CPU, enabling the program to run.
  2. Scripting Languages:
    • Relationship with Programming Languages: Often considered a subset or subcategory of programming languages.
    • Compilation: Unlike programming languages, scripting languages are interpreted rather than compiled.
    • Interpretation: Scripting languages utilize an interpreter to translate and execute instructions line by line, rather than all at once like a compiler.
  3. Markup Languages:
    • Nature: Not programming or scripting languages; instead, they are presentational languages.
    • Function: Used for defining, describing, and structuring data on web pages.
    • Presentation: Markup languages primarily focus on laying out and styling data to enhance the visual presentation of a webpage.

While programming and scripting languages involve logical processing and problem-solving, markup languages serve the purpose of structuring and presenting data on web pages without engaging in computational tasks.

Selecting the Right Programming Language

Choosing a programming language is akin to selecting the perfect tool for a task. Just as a construction worker picks a tool suited to the job at hand, software developers choose languages based on their attributes and the specific requirements of their projects.

Programming languages come with a range of attributes, including procedural, object-oriented, imperative, declarative, functional, and more. These characteristics, coupled with the demands of a development task, determine which language is most suitable for the context.

Developers rely on their understanding of these attributes, coupled with their experience, to make informed decisions. By assessing the requirements of the project and considering their personal career goals, developers can select the ideal tool to accomplish their objectives effectively.

Choosing the Right Programming Languages for Your Career Path

When embarking on your coding journey, the best programming language to learn depends on your career aspirations and the type of software development you aim to pursue. Consider the following possibilities:

  1. Front-end web development: JavaScript, TypeScript
  2. Back-end web development: JavaScript, TypeScript, Python, Go, Elixir, C#
  3. Mobile development: Swift, Java, C#
  4. Game development: C#
  5. Desktop applications: Java, Python, JavaScript, TypeScript
  6. Systems programming: C, Rust, Go

Selecting the appropriate language entails aligning your choice with your career goals and the specific area of software development you’re interested in pursuing.

Future Trends in Programming Languages

The demand for front-end developers continues to surge, with JavaScript maintaining its position as a highly sought-after skill in the job market.

Recent entries and advancements in the TIOBE list reflect the increasing importance of languages associated with data science and machine learning, driven by the rapid growth of these industries. It’s anticipated that emerging technologies and specialized fields will further drive the demand for these languages and other purpose-built, niche options.

Some experts speculate that functional languages like Scala and Haskell may eventually dominate the landscape due to their structured nature, leading to more scalable and reliable code in the long term.

Selecting the appropriate language involves considering factors such as the expertise of the development team, the maturity of the language, the availability of supporting libraries, and more.

Exploring the Rich Diversity of Programming Languages

The realm of programming languages offers a fascinating array of options, showcasing the vast diversity within the field. The languages mentioned above provide just a glimpse into this expansive landscape, with numerous others waiting to be explored – ranging from general-purpose to highly specialized.

However, programming extends beyond languages alone; it encompasses frameworks, libraries, IDEs, and various other components, adding layers of complexity to the ecosystem.

Yet, therein lies the allure of the field. With boundless possibilities and myriad paths to choose from, each with its own advantages and drawbacks, developers have the freedom to carve their unique journeys.

While the programming languages highlighted here serve as valuable starting points, especially when considering the top languages, they merely scratch the surface. These languages offer solid foundations for career advancement, paving the way for exploration into specialized niches and the pursuit of individual passions.

Top Picks for Beginner-Friendly Programming Languages

In the sections below, I highlight some of the most favored languages among beginners, along with their respective use cases and recommended resources to kickstart your learning journey.

Mastering HTML and CSS for Web Development

While HTML and CSS are technically markup languages rather than programming languages, they hold the top spot as the most popular languages among aspiring coders, according to the 2022 Stack Overflow developer survey.

HTML (HyperText Markup Language) serves to define the structure and content of web pages, encompassing elements like paragraphs, headings, lists, forms, and links. With the advent of HTML5, embedding multimedia elements such as images, videos, and audio directly into web pages has become seamless, eliminating the need for extra plugins.

On the other hand, CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) complements HTML by styling its elements, enhancing the visual presentation of content. It governs aspects like color schemes, typography, element sizing, page layout, and positioning.

For individuals aspiring to become frontend developers, mastering HTML and CSS is essential. These languages form the foundation for creating static web pages and serve as a precursor to learning JavaScript for adding interactivity.

To kickstart your journey into HTML and CSS, consider exploring the following resources:

  • “Learn HTML – Beginner’s Course”
  • “Learn CSS in this free 6-hour video course”
  • “Learn HTML and CSS with this free 11-hour course”
  • “Learn HTML and CSS in Spanish – Course for Beginners”
  • “Responsive Web Design Certification”

These resources offer comprehensive guidance and tutorials to help you grasp the fundamentals of HTML and CSS, paving the way for a rewarding career in web development.

Exploring SQL – The Essential Language for Database Management

SQL, short for Structured Query Language, serves as the cornerstone for working with databases, making it indispensable for roles involving data storage, management, retrieval, and analysis. Pronounced as either “S. Q. L.” or “sequel,” SQL is a primary language choice for professionals such as data scientists, data analysts, statisticians, and marketers.

With SQL, users can seamlessly interact with relational databases, accessing, querying, manipulating, and analyzing data stored in a structured tabular format. Relational databases organize data into tables, with columns and rows defining the relationships between various data items.

Through SQL, individuals can execute a range of operations on database data, including CRUD (Create, Read, Update, Delete) operations, enabling efficient management and utilization of data resources.

Although SQL is not technically a programming language and cannot be used to build web applications or software tools, it remains a vital tool for managing relational databases and performing operations on stored data.

Ranked as the third most popular language among professional developers, learning SQL is highly advantageous for individuals seeking careers in data-centric roles.

To embark on your SQL learning journey, consider exploring the following resources:

  • “Learn SQL – Free Relational Database Courses for Beginners”
  • “SQL Commands Cheat Sheet – How to Learn SQL in 10 Minutes”
  • “Learn SQL with These 5 Easy Recipes”
  • “SQL and Databases – A Full Course for Beginners”
  • “Relational Database Certification”

These resources offer comprehensive guidance and practical exercises to help you master SQL, empowering you to excel in roles requiring proficient database management skills.

Exploring C – The Timeless Language for Systems Development

C, introduced in 1972, stands as a well-established and enduring programming language that held dominance until the emergence of Java. Originally developed for systems programming, C found its niche in various applications, particularly in embedded systems, hardware drivers, and local applications.

With a history rooted in efficiency and high performance, C remains popular for its ability to deliver optimized code, making it indispensable for systems development on older systems with limited resources.

While C boasts portability, readability, and maintainability, its usage is primarily concentrated in low-level systems programming, distinguishing it as a specialized skill rather than a mainstream programming language. This specialization is reflected in the relatively fewer job openings compared to other top languages.

Despite its focused application, knowledge of C serves as a foundation for many other popular languages, making it a valuable asset for developers. However, its lack of safety nets, such as exception handling, necessitates meticulous coding practices to mitigate errors.


  • Serves as the foundation for many popular languages
  • Highly portable, readable, and maintainable
  • Relatively easy to learn


  • Primarily limited to systems coding
  • Lacks safety nets for error handling

Overall, C remains a timeless language revered for its efficiency and versatility in systems development.

Exploring JavaScript – The Versatile Language for Web Development

JavaScript, renowned as the most commonly used programming language for ten consecutive years according to the 2022 Stack Overflow developer survey, holds a prominent position in the coding landscape. As the second most popular language among aspiring developers, JavaScript empowers individuals to infuse interactivity and dynamic behaviors into static web pages.

With JavaScript, developers can implement a myriad of interactive features, including:

  • Geolocation-based maps
  • Customized messages upon page load
  • Real-time page updates based on user input
  • Engaging animations triggered by user actions
  • Smooth scroll effects for enhanced user experience
  • Hover effects and more

A standout feature of JavaScript is its immediate feedback loop – you can see the results of your code without the need for compilation. Since JavaScript is native to browsers, there’s no complex installation process, making it readily accessible for experimentation and learning.

JavaScript finds extensive application in both client-side programming and server-side scripting. It is indispensable for frontend web development and seamlessly transitions into backend development with the support of Node.js, enabling JavaScript to run on servers as well as browsers.

Proficiency in JavaScript is a prerequisite for frontend development roles and is increasingly favored for backend and full-stack web development positions.

In addition to powering sophisticated web applications, JavaScript fuels the creation of browser-based games, showcasing its versatility and adaptability.

To embark on your JavaScript learning journey, consider exploring the following resources:

  • “Full JavaScript Course for Beginners”
  • “Learn JavaScript in Spanish – Full Course for Beginners”
  • “Learn JavaScript by Building 7 Games – Full Course”
  • “JavaScript Tutorial: Build Flappy Bird and Doodle Jump”
  • “JavaScript Algorithms and Data Structures certification”

These resources offer comprehensive guidance and practical projects to help you master JavaScript, paving the way for a rewarding career in web development.

Exploring Scratch – The Beginner-Friendly Programming Platform

Scratch stands out as a popular programming platform tailored for beginners, particularly within educational settings. Developed by the Lifelong Kindergarten group at MIT, Scratch is meticulously crafted to simplify the learning curve for programming novices.

With its intuitive block-based visual interface, Scratch empowers users to craft interactive stories, animations, games, and various other programs in a user-friendly manner. Its accessibility and simplicity make it an ideal tool for introducing programming concepts to learners of all ages.

Given its educational focus, Scratch does not align with traditional salary expectations typical of professional programming languages. Instead, its value lies in its role as a learning tool rather than a career path. While Scratch enthusiasts may not find abundant job opportunities directly related to coding in Scratch, its rising popularity reflects a growing interest in integrating coding into early childhood education.


  • Simplified and accessible interface
  • Free to use, fostering inclusivity and accessibility


  • Limited professional applications and career prospects

In summary, Scratch emerges as a valuable resource for educators and learners seeking an approachable entry point into the world of programming, serving as a stepping stone toward broader coding proficiency.

Exploring Java – The Versatile Language for Cross-Platform Development

Java stands as an object-oriented, general-purpose programming language, with syntax derived from C and C++, offering a range of advantages, including portability. Its ability to run seamlessly across different devices and operating systems is facilitated by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), making Java a go-to choice for various applications.

Java finds extensive use in diverse domains, including:

  • Mobile application development for the Android Operating System
  • Backend web development
  • Game development
  • Embedded systems
  • Desktop application development
  • Enterprise-level software tools, particularly in the banking industry
  • Artificial intelligence and Internet of Things (IoT) devices

It’s crucial to note that Java is distinct from JavaScript, despite the similar naming convention. While JavaScript is a browser-based scripting language, Java operates on machines and utilizes a combination of a compiler and an interpreter.

According to the 2022 Stack Overflow Developer Survey, Java ranks as the fourth most popular language for beginners, offering lucrative career opportunities in software engineering, web development, and Android application development.

To embark on your journey into Java, consider exploring the following resources:

  • “Learn Java – Free Java Courses for Beginners”
  • “The Java Handbook – Learn Java Programming for Beginners”
  • “Learn Java Programming (version 17)”
  • “How to Build a Sudoku Game Java Desktop Application – A Free 2-hour Course”

These resources provide comprehensive guidance and practical exercises to help you master Java, paving the way for a rewarding career in cross-platform development.

Exploring Kotlin – The Rising Star in Mobile Development

Kotlin has emerged as a prominent programming language, particularly in the realm of mobile development, with a primary focus on Android applications. Running on the Java Virtual Machine (VM) and capable of compiling to JavaScript, Kotlin shares a strikingly similar syntax with Java, making it an attractive option for developers familiar with Java.

While Kotlin’s popularity has experienced significant growth in recent years, it still occupies a niche position within the programming landscape. Despite this, its adoption for Android OS development, backed by Google’s support, underscores its importance in the mobile development sphere.


  • A valuable asset for Android developers seeking modern solutions
  • Demonstrates rapid growth and increasing adoption rates


  • Remains a niche language with relatively limited demand outside of Android development

In summary, Kotlin presents itself as a promising choice for developers invested in Android app development, offering modern features and seamless integration with existing Java-based projects.

Exploring R – The Specialized Language for Statistical Analysis

R, a popular programming language primarily used for statistical computation and analysis, caters to a niche audience of statisticians and researchers. Its low popularity and specialized nature result from its focus on statistical tasks, making it indispensable for professionals in fields such as demography and insurance actuarial work.

Proficiency in R requires a solid understanding of statistics, as most of the language’s functionality revolves around statistical analysis of datasets. While its application is limited compared to more mainstream languages, such as Python or Java, R serves as a powerful tool for academia and industry, offering robust capabilities for data analysis and visualization.

Despite its niche appeal and relatively fewer job opportunities, expertise in R can significantly enhance a data analyst’s skill set, providing a competitive edge in statistical work.


  • Powerful specialized tool for academia and industry


  • Limited applications

Overall, R remains a valuable asset for professionals in statistical fields, offering advanced functionalities and capabilities tailored specifically for data analysis and computation tasks.

Discovering Python – The Versatile Language for Beginners

Python, renowned as a general-purpose server-side scripting language, holds the distinction of being the third most popular choice for novice coders, according to the 2022 Stack Overflow Developer Survey.

With its readable, intuitive, and beginner-friendly syntax, Python serves as an ideal language for beginners, offering conciseness and ease of comprehension.

Python’s versatility shines in its application across various domains, particularly in handling large datasets. It is widely embraced in fields such as machine learning, data science, data analysis, and data processing.

Furthermore, Python emerges as the language of choice for web scraping, facilitating the automated extraction and processing of vast amounts of data from the web.

For web development, Python offers robust frameworks like Django and Flask, enabling developers to create powerful backend web applications effortlessly.

Moreover, Python’s suitability for test automation streamlines the testing process, allowing developers to automate tests efficiently using Python libraries and scripts.

To embark on your Python learning journey, consider exploring the following resources:

  • “Python For Beginners Courses Ranked from Best to Worst – freeCodeCamp Edition”
  • “How to Code 20 Beginner Python Projects”
  • “Learn Python by Building 12 Projects in This 3-Hour Course”
  • “Backend Web Development with Python – Full Course”

These resources provide comprehensive guidance and practical projects to help you grasp Python fundamentals, paving the way for a rewarding journey into the world of programming.

What is Assembly Language: The Low-Level Language for Performance-Centric Development

Assembly language, often referred to as low-level code, provides a direct representation of native machine instructions for specific microprocessors. Unlike high-level languages, which are closer to English in syntax and require compilation, assembly code is assembled directly, offering unparalleled control over hardware resources.

While high-level languages prioritize readability and ease of comprehension, assembly language presents a steep learning curve due to its intricate and verbose nature. Each assembly instruction represents a single operation, requiring meticulous attention to detail for understanding and debugging.

Assembly language excels in scenarios where performance is paramount, making it indispensable for tasks such as systems programming and hardware/firmware development. Although it may be challenging to master, proficiency in assembly language enhances developers’ understanding of machine-level computer architecture.


  • Minimal execution time and memory usage
  • Deepens understanding of computer architecture


  • Difficulty in readability and writing
  • Typically a supplementary skill rather than a primary language

Overall, assembly language remains a specialized tool reserved for performance-centric development, offering unparalleled control and efficiency in low-level programming tasks.

Exploring C++ The Powerful Language for High-Performance Computing

In the early 1980s, Bjarne Stroustrup introduced C++, a language heavily influenced by C but offering enhanced capabilities. Originally dubbed ‘C with classes,’ it evolved into C++ in 1984, becoming a superset of C with additional features.

C++ provides developers with close access to machine hardware, enabling efficient execution of demanding low-level computational tasks. Simultaneously, it offers a higher level of abstraction, preserving the low-level efficiency of C while facilitating easier code organization and maintenance.

As both a procedural and object-oriented programming language, C++ fosters a structured approach to program design, dividing code into objects that represent real-world entities. This object-oriented paradigm enhances code readability, maintainability, and data security.

C++ finds widespread use in various domains, including:

  • Game engine development
  • Computer graphics
  • Application development
  • Virtual reality (VR) applications
  • Web browser creation, with major browsers like Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, and Safari being built using C++
  • Web browser extensions, such as those for Google Search

Ranked as the sixth most popular programming language for beginners according to the 2022 Stack Overflow Developer Survey, C++ offers lucrative opportunities for software engineering roles and application development.

To embark on your journey into C++, consider exploring the following resources:

  • “How to Learn the C++ Programming Language”
  • “Learn C++ Programming for Beginners – Free 31-Hour Course”
  • “Learn Object Oriented Programming (OOP) in C++ | Full Video Course”

These resources offer comprehensive guidance and practical exercises to help you master C++, empowering you to build high-performance applications and pursue a rewarding career in software engineering.

Exploring PHP – The Versatile Language for Web Development

PHP, originally named “Personal Home Page,” now known as “PHP: Hypertext Processor,” serves as a server-side scripting system primarily used for web applications. With origins rooted in extending CGI programs to support HTML forms and database access, PHP seamlessly integrates code with HTML, akin to classic Active Server Pages.

Renowned for its ease of learning, PHP boasts popularity among developers, serving as the foundation for prominent web-based applications like WordPress and Joomla. However, PHP has faced criticism regarding software quality, particularly in terms of security. Despite its drawbacks, advancements in PHP frameworks and libraries have addressed these concerns, enhancing security measures and bolstering its appeal for web development.

PHP’s widespread adoption translates into abundant job opportunities, particularly in content-focused web applications like WordPress and proprietary systems developed using PHP.


  • Powerful backend language
  • Stable and maintainable
  • Extensive community support and mature ecosystem


  • Primarily suited for web applications rather than desktop
  • Criticisms regarding security vulnerabilities

Overall, PHP remains a versatile language cherished for its simplicity and effectiveness in web development, offering a robust platform for creating dynamic and interactive web applications.

Unveiling Rust – The Niche Yet Lucrative Programming Language

Rust, a formidable programming language, is gaining traction, particularly in the realm of systems programming. Engineered with a focus on safety, reliability, and speed, Rust presents itself as a powerful tool for crafting application frameworks, software components, and delving into systems-level development.

Despite its relatively recent emergence and intricate design, Rust boasts an enviable position in terms of salary expectations, with average earnings approximating USD$140,000 per year. However, navigating Rust’s steep learning curve demands dedication and perseverance, making it less suited as a first language for aspiring developers.

While Rust’s popularity may not rival that of mainstream giants like Java or C#, its niche appeal is bolstered by a vibrant and enthusiastic community. For those seeking a learning challenge and lucrative career prospects, Rust holds promise, albeit within a specialized domain.


  • Remarkable performance capabilities
  • Lucrative job market with high earning potential


  • Challenging learning curve
  • Limited adoption compared to industry titans

In essence, Rust emerges as a compelling choice for developers eager to delve into systems programming and harness the benefits of a language poised for innovation and growth.

Exploring Perl – The Pragmatic Scripting Language

Perl, a popular programming language introduced in 1987, has maintained its prominence, particularly in the realm of scripting and web applications. Initially evolving from CGI scripting, Perl has undergone significant transformations in recent releases, adapting to modern development needs.

Known for its practicality and utilitarian nature, Perl offers developers a balance of ease of learning and moderate complexity. While some critics have raised concerns about its organization and robustness, Perl’s extensive usage and abundance of job opportunities underscore its relevance in today’s programming landscape.


  • Features like dynamic typing enhance development ease
  • Pragmatic and versatile language suited for various applications
  • Abundant job opportunities in scripting and web development


  • Characteristic use of special characters may impact readability
  • Notable CPU consumption in certain scenarios

Overall, Perl remains a valuable asset for developers, serving as a pragmatic and effective tool for crafting local and web applications, with ample opportunities for growth and innovation.

Exploring Go (Golang) – The Emerging Language for Modern Development

Go, also known as Golang, emerged in 2009 through the efforts of two Google engineers, offering a blend of C and Java syntax with a focus on simplicity, cross-platform compatibility, and support for modern processors. Despite its low popularity compared to established languages, Go has garnered attention for its growing adoption in engineering and DevOps communities.

With its relatively easy learning curve, Go presents a compelling option for developers, featuring some complexities of C/C++ while maintaining simpler syntax and conventions. Notably, Go’s popularity continues to rise, particularly in fields like machine learning, where its fast and powerful capabilities are leveraged.

Proficiency in Go can lead to lucrative opportunities, given its rarity among developers and the increasing demand for Go-related roles.


  • Growing popularity driven by Google’s endorsement
  • Fast and powerful performance
  • Ease of learning for experienced programmers


  • Still establishing itself compared to established languages

Overall, Go stands as an emerging language with promising prospects in modern development, offering a blend of simplicity, performance, and versatility for building web and local applications.

Exploring MATLAB: The Mathematical Computing Environment

MATLAB, although not strictly a programming language, serves as a powerful application for complex mathematical computations and modeling. Widely used in research settings, particularly in universities and laboratories, MATLAB excels in handling intricate matrix manipulations and supports extensions for complex mathematical notations.

Proficiency in MATLAB requires a strong foundation in mathematical concepts rather than programming knowledge. Therefore, individuals with advanced mathematical skills, such as those pursuing a PhD in mathematics, may find MATLAB relatively easy to learn. Valued for its ability to visualize and manipulate technical data, MATLAB proves essential for professionals in engineering and mathematics fields.


  • Ideal for visualizing and manipulating technical data
  • Abundance of libraries and functions for common use cases


  • Specialty applications with narrow focus
  • Requires a solid mathematical background

Overall, MATLAB remains a indispensable tool for mathematical research and computation, offering a comprehensive environment for tackling complex mathematical challenges in various fields.

Exploring Swift – The Modern Language for Apple Ecosystem Development

Swift, introduced by Apple in 2014 as a successor to Objective-C, emerged with the goal of providing a more modern and developer-friendly alternative. With syntax designed for readability and efficiency, Swift aims to streamline the development process for Apple mobile and desktop applications, including those for MacBook, iPhone, and iPad.

While Swift’s adoption faced challenges initially, including compatibility issues with new versions, its popularity is stabilizing, supported by a growing number of available jobs. Despite lingering concerns about backwards compatibility, Swift remains a prominent language within the Apple ecosystem, offering developers a less verbose and more intuitive coding experience.


  • Stabilizing popularity following initial challenges
  • Enhanced readability and developer experience
  • Well-suited for Apple ecosystem development


  • Backwards compatibility issues persist

Overall, Swift stands as a modern and versatile language, positioned to play a significant role in the development of Apple applications, with ongoing improvements aimed at addressing compatibility concerns and fostering a robust developer community.

Exploring Fortran – A Language with Enduring Relevance

Fortran, short for Formula Translation, holds a niche position in the programming landscape, known for its specialized applications in fields such as mainframe programming. Developed by IBM in 1957, Fortran has a long history and remains in use today, particularly in scientific and research-focused domains.

While Fortran’s popularity may have declined over time, it has maintained its relevance in fields like physics, astronomy, and supercomputing. In recent years, Fortran has seen a resurgence in demand, particularly for tasks involving massive volumes of complex data processing, leading to its rise in the TIOBE index.


  • Uniquely powerful for scientific computing purposes


  • Still considered an obscure language with very specific applications

In summary, Fortran continues to serve as a vital tool for specialized tasks, leveraging its strengths in scientific computing to address the unique challenges of modern research and data processing.

Prolog – The Language of Logical Programming

Prolog stands as a specialized yet powerful tool in the realm of programming.

  • Popularity: Niche Salary
  • Expectations: Typically between USD$84,000 – $114,000/yr in the USA
  • Ease of Learning: Difficult
  • Use Cases: Specialty, Artificial Intelligence

Prolog operates on the principles of declarative programming, rooted in advanced mathematical and logical theories. Leveraged primarily for intricate systems and adept at processing complex outputs with minimal code, Prolog offers unparalleled capabilities.

However, mastering Prolog’s syntax poses a formidable challenge, often deterring those outside fields that specifically utilize it or aspire to delve into artificial intelligence or logic programming.


  • Achieves substantial functionality with concise code
  • Excellently suited for intricate database queries


  • Characterized by a steep and demanding learning curve
  • Limited applicability outside of specialized domains

In essence, Prolog emerges as a niche language, wielding immense potential for those immersed in its targeted domains or aspiring to explore the frontiers of artificial intelligence and logical programming.

Exploring Ruby – The Versatile Language for Web Development

Ruby, a popular programming language, has gained prominence for its versatility and ease of learning since its introduction in the mid-1990s. Inspired by various languages like Lisp, Perl, and Ada, Ruby is widely utilized for web application development, with the renowned Ruby on Rails framework leading the way in server-side development.

Renowned for its simplicity and dynamic typing, Ruby offers a conducive environment for developers, particularly in the realm of web development. Despite its reputation for being less performant and challenging in debugging, Ruby’s strong presence in the web development world ensures healthy job prospects and abundant opportunities.


  • Easy to learn and use
  • Abundant job prospects, especially in web development
  • Leader in the web development ecosystem


  • Not as high-performing as some other languages
  • Debugging can pose challenges

Overall, Ruby remains a favored choice for developers entering the field of web development, offering a balance of simplicity, versatility, and ample opportunities for growth and innovation.

Visual FoxPro: A Niche Language for Database-Centric Applications

Visual FoxPro, developed by Microsoft in 1992, remains a niche language in the programming landscape, valued for its capabilities in building database-driven applications. As a data-centric and object-oriented language, Visual FoxPro offers robust support for SQL queries, data manipulation, and report generation.

With its visual development environment, developers can easily design user interfaces and streamline the debugging and testing process. However, Visual FoxPro does have limitations, including its lack of built-in support for web technologies like HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. Additionally, its compatibility is restricted to Windows, limiting its utility for cross-platform development.


  • Efficient for building Microsoft applications with rapid development capabilities.


  • Absence of native support for web technologies.
  • Limited compatibility, restricted to the Windows platform.
  • No longer actively developed or supported by Microsoft.

Visual FoxPro remains a viable option for developers specializing in database-centric applications on the Windows platform, offering a robust set of tools despite its niche status and limited support.

Bash – Streamlining Linux Operations

Bash, renowned as a command processor, serves as the go-to language for scripting and automating tasks on Unix and Linux platforms.

Popularity: Low (See Details)

Salary Expectations: Approximately USD$67,000 on Average

Ease of Learning: Easy to Moderate

Use Cases: Linux Scripting and Automation

With its straightforward syntax, Bash facilitates the creation of scripts that automate various operations within Unix and Linux environments. While Bash proficiency is primarily sought after in Unix/Linux administration roles, it also proves invaluable for developers tasked with streamlining software delivery pipelines.

Despite its niche popularity, Bash stands as a potent automation tool, enhancing efficiency and productivity in system administration and development workflows.


  • Highly efficient for its intended purposes
  • Empowers robust automation workflows


  • Functions primarily as a supplementary skill to complement full-fledged programming languages

In essence, Bash emerges as a vital component in the toolkit of Linux administrators and developers, offering unparalleled efficiency and versatility in automating routine tasks and streamlining operations.

Ada – A Niche Language for Reliable and Secure Programming

Ada, introduced in 1980, is a niche programming language known for its reliability and security features. Bearing similarities to Pascal, Ada incorporates typical high-level language elements such as static typing and object-orientation. It is notably favored in defense systems for its emphasis on careful and secure programming practices.

While Ada boasts a straightforward syntax and ease of learning, its usage remains largely confined to specific niche sectors. Job opportunities in Ada are limited, primarily revolving around maintenance and porting tasks to newer platforms.


  • Straightforward syntax conducive to easy learning
  • Emphasis on reliability and security in programming


  • Limited adoption outside of niche sectors
  • Facing competition from emerging languages like Rust

Ada serves as a specialized tool for industries prioritizing reliability and security in their software systems. While it offers simplicity and robustness, its niche status and limited job market make it a less common choice among developers in broader software development domains.

PL/SQL – Powering Oracle Databases

PL/SQL, a widely used programming language, finds its stronghold in database-centric applications, particularly within the realm of Oracle databases.

  • Popularity: Low to Medium
  • Salary Expectations: Approximately USD$89,000/yr on average
  • Ease of Learning: Moderate
  • Use Cases: Database Queries

Serving as Oracle’s proprietary implementation of SQL, PL/SQL’s syntax and functionalities are tailored to align seamlessly with Oracle databases. While mastering any SQL dialect requires a moderate level of proficiency, PL/SQL distinguishes itself with its robust features and advanced capabilities.

From simple data retrieval and manipulation to more complex operations like joins and aggregation, PL/SQL empowers developers to navigate through intricate database structures with ease. Given Oracle’s prominence in the database market, PL/SQL proficiency opens doors to abundant job opportunities, particularly for Oracle Database Administrators and full-stack developers working extensively with data layers.


  • Supported and maintained by industry heavyweight Oracle
  • Empowers efficient application development through powerful features


  • Notable memory consumption
  • Limited to niche applications

In essence, PL/SQL stands as a vital tool in the arsenal of Oracle-centric developers, offering a potent blend of efficiency and versatility in database-driven applications.

Exploring Objective-C – The Cornerstone Language for Apple iOS Development

Objective-C, a popular programming language with a high level of demand, serves as a cornerstone for developing applications on Apple iOS devices like the iPhone and iPad. Derived from Smalltalk, Objective-C boasts a robust object-oriented architecture and is compiled for efficient execution.

Despite the introduction of Swift in 2014 as a modern alternative, Objective-C retains its popularity due to its extensive use in legacy applications. However, its syntax and conventions present a steep learning curve, making it a challenging language to master, especially for those unfamiliar with its unique features.

Given its integral role in iOS development, mastering both Objective-C and Swift is advisable for developers aiming to excel in the Apple ecosystem. While Objective-C’s dominance may wane over time with the rise of Swift, it remains indispensable for maintaining and developing legacy applications.


  • Essential for iOS development, particularly in legacy applications
  • Abundant job opportunities in the Apple ecosystem


  • Unique syntax and conventions pose challenges for beginners
  • Potential for eventual replacement by Swift

Overall, Objective-C stands as a fundamental language for iOS development, offering developers a pathway to success in crafting applications for Apple’s diverse range of devices.

Dart – A Growing Language for Cross-Platform Development

Dart, developed by Google engineers in 2011, is gaining traction as a niche programming language. It boasts static typing, compilation, and an object-oriented structure akin to C, with the added advantage of transpiling to JavaScript.

Primarily utilized for web and mobile applications, Dart is particularly notable for its association with Flutter, a prominent framework facilitating efficient cross-platform development.


  • High-performance capabilities
  • Developer-friendly syntax
  • Efficient cross-platform development with Flutter


  • Relatively new language with limited community support and demand

Dart presents itself as a promising option for developers seeking streamlined cross-platform development, especially with the aid of frameworks like Flutter. While still in its infancy, Dart’s potential for growth and expansion warrants attention in the programming landscape.

Scala – The Robust Language for Software Development

Scala, renowned for its versatility, stands as a prominent choice in the programming landscape.

  • Popularity: Moderate to High
  • Salary Expectations: Typically between USD$75,046 – $118,352
  • Ease of Learning: Moderate to Difficult
  • Use Cases: General Use, Software Frameworks, Web Applications

Originally designed to address gaps in Java, Scala integrates functional programming features, garnering favor in the development of software libraries and applications.

Despite its reputation for a steep learning curve, Scala offers valuable insights into functional programming principles, applicable across various languages. With numerous Scala job opportunities available, it proves advantageous for developers with prior experience seeking to expand their skill set.


  • Facilitates safe multi-threaded development
  • Offers flexibility and reliability in software development


  • Slow compilation process
  • Initial learning curve can be challenging and time-consuming

In essence, Scala emerges as a robust language, empowering developers to craft sophisticated software solutions while embracing modern programming paradigms.

D – The Fusion of Performance and Flexibility

D stands as a fusion of compiled language efficiency and interpreted language adaptability.

  • Popularity: Niche
  • Salary Expectations: D is currently too obscure to produce much reliable salary data
  • Ease of Learning: Difficult
  • Use Cases: Specialty

D, a general-purpose programming language, aspires to marry the performance prowess of compiled languages with the accessibility and versatility of interpreted ones. Featuring static typing and supporting both imperative and object-oriented programming paradigms, D boasts an expressive and readable syntax, alongside garbage collection and a robust static type system, all contributing to an elevated developer experience.

Its forte lies in the realm of high-performance applications, facilitated by robust support for concurrent and parallel programming. However, D’s ecosystem suffers from immaturity, inconsistency in standard libraries, and a paucity of quality packages. Consequently, while D stands as a formidable language, its growth trajectory remains uncertain.


  • Ideal for crafting high-performance applications
  • Static typing enhances compile-time error detection, bolstering reliability


  • Currently residing in obscurity
  • Presents a steep learning curve

In essence, D emerges as a potent contender in the programming landscape, offering a unique blend of efficiency and adaptability, albeit amidst challenges that temper its mainstream adoption.

PowerShell – Empowering Windows Automation

  • Popularity: Medium
  • Salary Expectations: Typically falls between USD$68,355 – $101,697/yr
  • Ease of Learning: Moderate – Difficult
  • Use Cases: Windows Scripting

PowerShell, introduced by Microsoft in 2006, stands as a robust command-line shell and scripting language rooted in the .NET framework. Tailored for orchestrating and managing tasks within Windows environments, PowerShell boasts versatility beyond Windows, extending its reach to platforms like Linux and macOS.

Equipped with a plethora of built-in cmdlets (command-line tools), PowerShell offers extensive functionalities for tasks ranging from file and folder management to system administration. Its support for object-oriented and event-driven programming, coupled with a potent scripting language, enhances its utility in diverse scenarios.

Despite its comprehensive capabilities, PowerShell may present a learning curve, particularly for individuals unaccustomed to command-line interfaces or scripting languages.


  • Intrinsic to recent Windows versions, facilitating widespread adoption in Windows development
  • Experienced a surge in popularity following its transition to open source status


  • Performance may lag compared to alternative solutions

In essence, PowerShell emerges as a pivotal tool for automating and managing tasks within Windows environments, offering a potent blend of versatility and functionality to streamline operations effectively.

Also Read How to Create Animation in PPT


Now that you’ve been introduced to some of the most popular programming languages, it’s time to decide which one best aligns with your project and personal goals. If you’re a beginner, it’s advisable to start with one of the top five languages, benefiting from their extensive community support, abundant learning resources, and versatile applications. For those with more experience or specializing in areas like data science, you can afford to be more selective. If you’re aiming for higher salaries, exploring languages with niche demand might lead to premium compensation.

FAQ’S for Programming Languages for Beginners Guide

Here some FAQ’S for Programming Languages for Beginners Guide

What are some common applications of Python?

Python finds extensive use in various domains, including:
Data science, machine learning, and artificial intelligence
Web development (with frameworks like Django and Flask)
Scripting and automation
Backend development
Test automation

Why should I learn SQL?

SQL, or Structured Query Language, is essential for working with databases, enabling tasks such as data retrieval, manipulation, and analysis.
It's particularly valuable for roles in data science, data analysis, and database management.
Learning SQL opens up opportunities in fields like backend development, data engineering, and business intelligence.

What are some key features of C++?

C++ is known for its efficiency, performance, and versatility.
It combines low-level programming capabilities with high-level abstractions, making it suitable for systems programming, game development, and building large-scale applications.
C++ supports both procedural and object-oriented programming paradigms, offering flexibility and scalability in software development.

Why should I consider learning Java?

Java is widely used for developing mobile applications, especially for Android devices.
It offers cross-platform compatibility, allowing developers to write code once and run it on different platforms.
Java's strong community support, vast ecosystem of libraries, and robust security features make it a popular choice for enterprise-level applications and web development.

What are the advantages of using Rust?

Rust prioritizes safety, reliability, and performance, making it suitable for systems programming and building high-performance applications.
Its strong static typing system helps catch errors at compile-time, reducing bugs and enhancing code reliability.
Rust's growing community and support for concurrent and parallel programming contribute to its appeal for modern software development.

Happy coding!

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